Saturday, March 14, 2020

violence, the media gaze ignores the crimes of more powerful groups in society Essays

By focusing on street crime/violence, the media gaze ignores the crimes of more powerful groups in society Essays By focusing on street crime/violence, the media gaze ignores the crimes of more powerful groups in society Essay By focusing on street crime/violence, the media gaze ignores the crimes of more powerful groups in society Essay In order to discuss the above proposition, with reference to crimes such as domestic violence and child abuse, I shall need to investigate several themes and discourses ; essentially the term dangerousness and why, when we focus on a particular site of crime, do we marginalize other potential sites? I will also be looking at how we define the more powerful groups in society; what is perceived as real crime and does family violence/abuse fall within these parameters. Does the media focus on street crime and violence, ensuring that the crimes of the powerful stay out of the publics vision, and if so, why? The issues surrounding crime, the powerful and, indeed offences within the home are contested and complex. To enable us to look at why the media ignores crimes of the more powerful members of society, I will consider the feminist view of conjugal violence and child abuse, then touch upon the area of corporate crime, in order to exhume the hidden crimes of the powerful. Thus, showing crime can, and does, occur at every level of society, regardless of status, race, age or gender; whether it is acknowledged or not. A basic definition of crime, as described by Tappan, is Black Letter Law; an act punishable by law; it is at the states discretion to label those who are deviant (Tappan, 1947, p100). People of a prominent rank within the state are empowered to be able to determine who and what are criminalised; further more they are capable of deciding who are classed as the powerful members of society. In this instance, we can assume these powerful members of society to be, politicians, law makers, agents of social control (etc. ), who control what is deemed right or wrong. a crime has only been committed if the law states so. Modern ideas regarding crime came in the early nineteenth century, with the growth of cities and urbanization; although seen as progression, it was also deemed a site of danger, where crime and disorder was common. The theme of dangerousness, not only covers places, but also people. It sets certain members of society apart from others; they were known as, the dangerous classes, the underclass or social residuum, as described by Murray, These poor people didnt lack just money. They were defined by their behaviour, (Murray, Criminological Perspectives, p127). Images of the dangerous classes were projected to the public, where they were considered to be a threat to the moral, public and legal order of society; some of these perceptions are evident today. When we view crime in the city, through the theme of dangerousness, some types of crime are focused upon, while others are pushed into the background. The media and the public tend to concentrate on street crime; mugging or burglary, which is visible. In contrast, white collar or corporate crimes, such as fraud are invisible, even though they are a prominent characteristic of the city. As Box points out, For too long too many people have been socialized to see crime and criminals through the eyes of the state, (Box, 1983, p281). There is a vast diversity in sites and types of criminal activity; ranging from inner city slum areas to the boardroom and from drug use to fraud. It is the above mentioned dominant groups within society, who are authorized to deem a particular activity criminal or a site to be prone to these activities. Alongside this, they are also of a status where they can pass laws that safeguard their own. People in power not only have the ability to criminalize, they are also in a prime position to hide their crimes. The politically powerful can hide their offences, such as illegal arms-dealing, from the public, through directing the media towards other areas of crime, as discussed in a previous assignment. The economic influential groups can conceal their misdemeanours, like fraud, behind regulations and multifaceted business laws. However, it is not only at this level of society that power exists; within the home there are micro relations of power; between partners and among the adults and children. These power relations can result in domestic violence crimes and child abuse never being discussed, reported to the police or punished by the law. The above examples imply that dominant conceptions of crime, especially those that repeatedly appeal to the media, are blurred by which crime is publicly detectable. It is telling, that until recently, domestic violence and corporate crime featured in few court cases. Dangerousness is not only a feature of city life; it also features within the home. A fact which has only recently been acknowledged and discussed, as public and political disquiet has lay elsewhere. Previously, the family has been thought of as a private and secure sanctuary, where no state intervention was required, as stated by Blagg and Smith (1989), an image of a settled, harmonious, wholesome and ord erly unit without needing interference of the state and its army of functionaries to prop it up, (Blagg and Smith, 1989, p23). Unfortunately, this is not the case for many families and it was not until the end of the nineteenth Century and latter part of the twentieth Century that community anxieties arose. Before these times, there was an unmistakable division between public and private; an assault on the street was criminalized, but within a family, it was not. The feminist movement played a key role in bringing domestic violence to the forefront of public thought; prior to this, people did not wish to think of crime taking place within the home, as this challenged the image of the ideal family. As Segal (1990) points out, it is startling to realize that rape and mens violence towards women became a serious social and political issue only through feminist attention to them, (Segal, 1990, p211). How are these types of crime defined, because if we take the normal family discourse, some violence is seen as commonplace, whereas a welfare discourse would class it as abuse, rather than violence. Feminists were particularly critical of this view, as by dismissing family violence as family problems, the power relations of age and gender are neglected. There are many contested and complex theories on this matter, thus, it is impossible to give a clear cut definition regarding what constitutes as crime within the home.. In contrast, the feminist discourse view domestic violence and child abuse as exploitation and manipulation of power. Mirlees-Black stated, victims of domestic violence may not define their experiences as crimes, (Mirlees-Black et al. , 1998 p6). This is one of the reasons it is so difficult to obtain a true picture of these types of crime, as many see the violence as the norm. In 1999, statistics from the Home Office, showed that a quarter of violent crime occurred within the home, (Home Office and Cabinet Office Womens Unit, 1999, Chapter 1, p2), but this is probably much higher due to the concealed environment of the family. Also, close relationships between household members make it difficult for victims to come forward. Sufferers may blame themselves or be too frightened to speak out, through fear of retaliation or not being believed; it may be that they are financially dependent on the perpetrator. All of these notions could prevent crimes within the home being reported to the police and consequently make it extremely difficult to gain accurate statistics regarding the level and number of these crimes. Even though surveys may produce more truthful figures, if the correct questions are not asked, we are again left with clouded information. According to Painter (1991), the figures of rape within marriage are much higher than sexual assaults on the street. The feminist discourse sees a connection between crimes within the home and how masculinities are formed. Men within the family are predominantly seen as the powerful members, with women being submissive. As Gordon explains, masculinity refers to, The basis of wife beating is male dominance not superior physical strength or violent temperament but social economic, political and psychological power , (Gordon, 1989, p251). Domestic violence and child abuse is often seen as only affecting the dangerous classes, only occurring in a minority of dysfunctional families; blaming it on the stress of being unemployed leading to alcohol abuse or the woman provoking the situation. This view takes the spotlight away from the more powerful members of society (middle/upper classes), who may be just as likely to be harbouring crime within the home. We have seen how the powerful are able to manipulate what is portrayed in the media; the media are willing to comply as their focus is on subjects that will tantalize readers and it is them that play a significant role in our perception of crime and disorder. The public are more comfortable with hearing about street crime and violence, than crimes within the home and they cannot visualize corporate crime, so perhaps think that it will not affect them. If crimes of the powerful cannot be seen, does this mean they are less real or serious? In actual fact, it is the opposite that is true, as they gain more power and are more dangerous by not being clearly viewed. We have also seen how, through the theme of dangerousness, certain sites of crime are focused upon, while others which are as, if not more, serious, are pushed into the background. Similarly, people that are conceived to be from the dangerous classes, through misguided preconceptions, are seen to be more prone to criminal activity, than the members of the more powerful groups within society. Due to the medias chief representation of violent crime and delinquency, crimes of the powerful are less obvious. Box summarizes this well, Maybe what is stuffed into our consciousness as the crime problem is in fact an illusion, a trick to deflect our attention away from other, even more serious crimes and victimizing behaviours, which objectively cause the vast bulk of avoidable death, injury and deprivation, (Box, Criminological Perspectives, p272s of Boxs mystification can be seen by recent events that have occurred, such as, the Clapham Rail disaster or the sinking of the Marchioness boat. By the powerful not taking responsibility, the blame falls on to the powerless employees. Even though these incidents resulted in death, neither was believed to be real crimes. Box puts the reason behind this down to ideological mystification; low visibility of private working areas, results in negligence being pushed out of the publics vision. Corporate crime is also conveniently well hidden from public view; through its complexity, criminal activities are hard to trace and haphazard regulations make it even easier for offences to go unnoticed. Combined with the ever increasing world of new technology, makes this task of uncovering offences almost impossible. However, although previously concealed, crimes within the home have now come much further to the forefront and have become recognised as such, mainly due to feminists disputing thoughts of the family being a private site; they have made domestic violence and child abuse visible and established them as criminal acts. That is not to say that these offences are easily defined, as they are not and the law has some way to go, before all criminals within the home are brought to justice.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Case Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Case Report - Essay Example The importance of the right of the accused to be assisted with a counsel before answering questions during custodial investigation was the significant principle laid down in this case. The â€Å"Miranda rights† is referred to as the right of the accused to a counsel which has the following wordings: You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to have an attorney present during questioning. If you cannot afford an attorney, one will be appointed for you." Absence of the Miranda rights shall render the admission of the accused as inadmissible in evidence and shall be regarded as the fruit of a poisonous tree. Further, any statement obtained from the accused by the police during custodial investigation shall not be admitted as evidence during trial unless it can be proven that the accused voluntarily offered the confession after having been informed of his rights and fully understanding the consequen ces of his actions, with or without assistance of a counsel, which shall be considered as a valid waiver on his part. On March of 1963, the accused, Ernesto Arturo Miranda from Phoenix, Arizona, was arrested following the charge of rape and kidnapping of an 18-year-old movie theater  attendant. During custodial investigation, he confessed commission of the crimes of robbery and attempted rape. During trial, his confession, together with the testimony of the victim were used against him, despite the objections of his counsel. The officers who interrogated Miranda admitted also admitted during the trial that Miranda was not advised that he had a right to have an attorney present. His counsel argued that his Fifth Amendment rights against self incrimination were violated. Superior Court Judge Yale Mc Fate held that the confession is admissible as evidence. Thus, Miranda was convicted and sentenced to 20 to 30 years in prison to be served

Monday, February 10, 2020

E-commerce and Its Importance in Business Dissertation

E-commerce and Its Importance in Business - Dissertation Example With the increase in the number of internet users, the popularity of e-commerce has been significantly increased by a greater extent. Customers and organisations are now much attracted towards performing e-commerce activities and are considering the use of internet as an important alternative over the traditional modes of business. In relation to the perception of e-commerce, the online marketing has provided a new paradigm to consumer behaviour. Online stores have offered customers with wide choice of products and convenient ways of shopping as well as payment modes (OECD, 1999). The emergence of e-commerce has relatively removed the barriers of customers and online traders to efficiently cooperate with each other irrespective of geographically distance. E-commerce enhanced the speed of business transactions and reduced the time that is consumed by the organisations while making business transactions. However, the intensified dependence on e-commerce has also raised significant conc ern over certain crucial factors like privacy along with security of customers’ vital information. ... The industries, markets and businesses are rapidly transforming themselves into technologically oriented from traditional approach due to extensive use of paper works that ultimately consumes much time while conducting any business transactions. Accordingly, the notion of e-commerce enhances the association between the customers and the suppliers and makes the buying as well as selling decisions of the customers more convenient to execute. Conversely, it can also be affirmed that e-commerce might pose serious impact almost on all the parties involved in a business transaction such as individual users, organisations, buyers and sellers (DeLone & McLean, 2004). Zhu (2004) proclaimed that the intensive use of internet imposes radical impact upon enterprise value chain system with respect to its inbound as well as outbound costs. Moreover, internet enabled initiatives undertaken by large companies will strengthen the online relationship with customers and will immensely help in dissemina ting product information, facilitating smooth product transactions, improving customer services and efficiently managing inventory electronically. Moreover, it has also been claimed that efficient use of e-commerce also intends to improve the utilisation of valuable assets by the organisations in the best possible way. Consequently, effective execution of precious assets will ultimately help the organisations to reduce their different costs, secure greater returns and enhance productivity along with profitability (Zhu, 2004). According to Pires & Aisbett (2003) e-commerce changes the behaviour as well as the attitudes of both the customers along with the suppliers within the marketplace.

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Experience on Taking the Test Essay Example for Free

Experience on Taking the Test Essay Taking the Jung Typology Test was a bit fun. It reinforced some of the things I already knew about myself and I also discovered a few revelations along the way. Though, if one has observed, the questions were often repeated, albeit in a different way. Some questions were also ambiguous, especially if the trait being asked was not concretely experienced by the individual. For example, the â€Å"do you trust reason rather than feelings?†Ã‚   line was quite hard to ponder, since the instances where I trust reason and the instances where I trust feelings depends on the circumstance that I am in. Personality Fit Based on the test, I am an ENTJ—slightly extraverted, moderately intuitive, distinctively thinking and moderately judging. I am quite surprised that I have a moderately judging personality. I also thought that I am largely introverted, for my desire to maintain only a few close relationships. Perhaps, being a slight extravert means that I transform into one gregarious, engaging individual if it would be opportune for me. Overall, however, I have always been aware of most of the traits I have, prior to taking the exercise. The Jung Typology test gave me a detailed description of myself. Workplace Strengths The ENTJ type, like the other types have specific strengths for the   workplace . Based on the interpretation by D. Kersey, I am a fieldmarshall, a leader that can visualize, and communicate. It also stated that I am highly organized and coordinated. Being an ENTJ also means that I am efficient   in completing tasks, yet I am also impatient of repetitive errors. In my case, I enjoy being in charge. Having a goal-oriented personality, I also urge my workmates to do the same. Thus, any assignment is sure to be completed in a timely manner. In addition, as the exam indicated, ENTJ’s are devoted to the task at hand, often at the expense of one’s personal life. In effect, the level of commitment that I put in my job usually translates to an output that exceeds the standard. Another positive aspect of an ENTJ is decisiveness. This usually comes handy when time pressure is involved. I believe that having a decision is better than having none at all. Weaknesses to be Adressed However, there are also some weaknesses that must be addressed. Since I am focused on achieving targets, based on the test and on my personal assessment, empathy usually takes a backseat. This usually spells trouble for me. I fail to connect with them in a deeper level, and thus, fall short of encouraging them to work wholeheartedly. Perhaps, it means, that I can sometimes be bullish just to realize the goal at hand. Also, my impatience with repetitive mistakes can dampen spirits of co-workers who are still learning the ropes. Another trait of an ENTJ that can sometimes be a weakness is the desire to control. Since outcomes are of utmost importance, the tendency to dominate is imminent. At times, being in charge brings positive results, especially if the group involved lacks direction and focus. However, oftentimes, it can be misinterpreted as being tyrannical and can cause subordinates to spite the boss, and thus affecting performance at work. These are just some of the things that I have to work on, since it is a well-known fact that part of being an effective leader is having people skills, or soft skills. Without the ability to encourage, inspire and motivate others, a manager or executive would create a lower morale in the workplace. Pitfalls of the Test Taking the Jung typology test has made me more aware of my strengths and weaknesses. Based on the results, I now know that sometimes, my desire to accomplish much may be detrimental to my work relationships. Perhaps, I can still be goal-oriented and efficient without being brash. I can push them to work for a certain standard sans the feeling that they are doing it out of obligation or fear. I think the exam measures some aspects of basic personal managerial competence well by determining for instance the level of extravertness or intuition of the person. However, since it is a yes or no questionnaire, it has pitfalls. It puts the test-taker in a black and white situation, leaving him no room to answer, â€Å"maybe† or â€Å"sometimes†. References Butt, Joe.(2005, February 27).Extraverted, Intuitive, Thinking, Judging. Retrieved May 6 , 2007 from Jung, Carl. Jung Typology Test. Retrieved May 6 , 2007 from Kiersey, D. .Rational Portrait of the Fieldmarshall. Retrieved May 6 , 2007   from

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Arthur Miller and his Distorted Historical Accuracies :: American America History

Arthur Miller and his Distorted Historical Accuracies In 1953, Arthur Miller wrote his famous play The Crucible, in response to a fear of Communism that had developed in the United States during that decade. The "Red Scare", as it was later called by historians was led by Senator Joseph McCarthy, whose paranoia of a communist takeover spread through the nation like a wildfire. Men and women alike fell victim to McCarthy's pointed finger and as a result of this hysteria, were mostly deported from the country, their careers and lives ruined. Some argue today that McCarthy's plan had been to use the fear of the American people to throw his enemies out of office and gain power himself. Whatever McCarthy's motives may have been, Arthur Miller realized the senator's ludicracy when he attempted to accuse the President himself to be Communist. Miller and the rest of the American people drew the line and McCarthy was seen a fraud. By the time the rest of the public had came to this realization, Miller's play was written. The Crucible is a play in which Arthur Miller parallels events of the Salem witch trials of 1692 to the problems that were plaguing his own society. The statement that most readers today bring out of the play is that history has a way of repeating itself. Miller's play was an extreme hit upon release and won a Tony award. The play is so popular today that many teachers in secondary schools use it to base their lesson around when teaching their students about 1692 Salem and there are multimedia activities based on Salem through The Crucible's view. Miller is often asked to speak at events where similar "witch hunts" occur, acting as a sort of expert on the subject of Puritan Salem and acts of hysteria. The question is, why is Arthur Miller revered by so many as "the man to ask" regarding the Salem Witch trials when his play had many inaccuracies, some very obvious? Miller's play is not a historical account of the events in 1692 Salem, but rather a work of fiction. It is important to realize that what Miller wrote is not fact by revealing where his play is historically flawed. Some of the more important discrepancies are discussed below: By examining Miller's main plot relationship between characters Abigail Williams and John Proctor, we uncover many discrepancies, mainly that there was no relationship at all.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Effectiveness of Celebrity in Brand Endorsement Essay

I receive enormous delight in thanking MKT 619 Instructor for permitting me to carry on work later than accepting my proposal for this project. I would like also like to situation my heartiest thanks to every one staff member of Virtual University for their kind support, guidance and useful suggestions, during my two years MBA with this University. I would like to thanks the Mobilink Indigo Telenor Persona Pakistan to support me during project. I would like to put into words my warm thanks to my parents for their blessings, my collaborator and my friends for their help for doing well completion of this project. Executive Summary This project is all about the primary research about the topic of Effectiveness of celebrity in brand endorsement. This project describes that relationship by making the comparison between the two leading telecommunication companies of Pakistan i. e. Mobilink and Telenor. The package which I selected for my research of these telecommunication companies are Post paid package. For Mobilink I selected Mobilink-Indigo and for Telenor, I selected Telenor-Persona. Moreover these packages are running very effectively and gathered more customers in the country. Both companies are very mature in the telecommunication market sector of Pakistan. The major difference is the customization of the package which is launched by both companies. Mobilink Indigo acquire large market share as compared to Telenor-Persona. Now as far as the Research topic is concerned, the marketing of the both packages is done well by the respective companies. In the advertisement of Mobilink Indigo, Mobilink hired Shan (a leading Pakistani film actor) and in advertisement of Telenor Persona, Telenor hired Sohail Ahmed (a leading actor of TV, film and stage) and Babar Ali (a good film actor). Basically, the post-paid packages are designed for the corporate customers so both the companies portray a business atmosphere in their respective advertisements. A most important factor that the telecommunication companies will decide before launching the advertisement is the choice of the celebrity and the relationship of the personality with the atmosphere of the condition in which the advertisement will be performed. In this research, I first of all describe various factors that affect the relationship of Effectiveness of celebrity with brand endorsement and after that I researched on those factors by filling the questionnaires from the respondents from Lahore, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat and nearby areas. After gathering the primary data from the respondents and secondary data from other resources like newspapers, catalogues etc a statistical analysis including descriptive statistics and Regression analysis is applied and give the results. As we identify all, that there is a immense competition in their advertisement and this has previously taken the main part of income away. As per market experts nearer or later on there will be a great competition between the two companies as the values wars have go into extremely severe era plus it has become the query of support. Our secondary research includes the quality, branding, corporate social responsibility, atmosphere and the seasonal conditions. While primary research is focused on the Effectiveness of celebrity in brand endorsement in near future 1. 2 Background of the project: Effectiveness of celebrity in brand endorsement is essentially related to my present job and this will lead to do my project. The corporations that are allocating for comparison of usefulness of celebrity in brand endorsement for my final project are Mobilink Pakistan and Telenor Pakistan. These are main cellular corporations authorize the Pakistani citizens with the nearly all relevant message approach and services. This study has appeared on the exploration of Effectiveness of celebrity in brand endorsement which has gained most important market share in Pakistan. 1. 3 Company’s introduction: Mobilink Indigo: [pic] Mobilink, a subordinate of the Orascom Telecom property, is Pakistan’s show the way cellular and Blackberry tune-up provider. In the company of more than 31. 6 million subscribers, Mobilink uphold market management throughout cutting-edge, included expertise, the strongest trademark and the biggest collection of price added services in the business, a broadband delivery service separation providing subsequently creation internet technology as well as the nation’s largest tone of voice and data system with further than eight thousand cell position. Accommodation Pakistan’s largest sharing and contact centre set of connections and an incomparable sixty five thousand kilometers fiber optic spine, Mobilink has previously spend more than US $3. 3 billion in the state to date and provide continuous nationwide connectivity, unmatched client services and worldwide wandering in over one fourth four countries. The company is also the executive cellular associate of the Pakistan Cricket panel. As an accountable corporate civilian, Mobilink also present a range of publicly inclusive products along with services enthusiastic to improve access to in order. Through Mobilink groundwork, the companies support instruction, health and environmental program and encourage sustainable industry practice. Mobilink offers completely designed duty plans that cater to the announcement needs of a varied group of people, from persons to businessmen to business and international. To achieve this goal, we recommend equally postpaid (Indigo) as well as prepaid (JAZZ) way out to our clientele. Compared to our competitors, both the postpaid (Indigo) and prepaid (JAZZ) trademark are the largest trademark of their type in the Pakistan cellular manufacturing. In addition to as long as superior voice message services that create the lives of millions with the purpose of much simple, we also suggest a congregation of value-added-services to our high-quality clientele. All together, Mobilink places far above the ground significance to its coverage, which is why we face you in 10,000 plus towns and city countrywide as well as over 140 nations on international roaming tune-up. In other words, we talk your words, all over. Telenor persona: [pic] Telenor Pakistan is hundred percent hold by Telenor ASA along with ads on to its process in Asia in somebody’s company with Thailand, Malaysia and Bangladesh. Telenor Pakistan start on its procedure in March two thousand five as the on its own largest through European asset in Pakistan, location superiority for more overseas investments in the telecom segment The company has fractious many high point and full-fledged in a number of information, create Telenor Pakistan a leading telecom worker of the state. Telenor is the greatest rising mobile system in the country, with coverage accomplishment deep into many of the furthest areas of Pakistan. In the most not easy terrains of the state, from the northern region to the wilderness in the south Telenor, spend heavily in communications growth With USD2 billion by now spend, with extended contract with their wholesaler for network growth and services. Telenor have a set of connections of twenty three company owned deal and service midpoint, more than two hundred franchisees as well as some one lack retail channel. The Telenor cluster is a worldwide provider of far above the ground superiority telecom, data and media message services with mobile procedure in thirteen markets crosswise the Nordic area, Central along with Eastern Europe as well as in Asia. The Telenor Group is in the middle of the biggest mobile operators in the globe with over one forty-three million mobile contributions and a labor force of more or less fourth thousand. Telenor Pakistan is hundred percent be the owner of by Telenor ASA as well as adds on to its action in Asia. 1. 4List of competitors: The main competitors for Mobilink-Indigo and Telenor- Persona are given below: †¢ Ufone-Postpay †¢ Zong-Postpaid †¢ Warid-Zahi 1. 5 Objectives of the project: The Objectives of this project is to make available the Comparison of Effectiveness of celebrity in brand endorsement for the 2 main Telecom companies of Pakistan i. e. Mobilink indigo and Telenor persona. The project will center of attention the following objectives: †¢ To determine customer’s perception about celebrity (Shan) for endorsement of Mobilink Indigo. †¢ To determine customer’s perception about celebrity (Jamal Shah or other) for endorsement of Telenor Persona. To compare customer’s perception about aforementioned celebrities for endorsement of selected brands. 1. 6 Significance of the project: †¢ During my project, I will also cover customer Information survey about their preference of celebrity with brand endorsement between Mobilink Indigo and Telenor Persona.   While this study will provide comparison within two telecommunication companies with an overall picture that will help the marketing managers of these companies to made their ads better and interesting. †¢ The study will help the two companies for the future market placement of their services. Cellular telecommunication companies are now highly competitive industries in Pakistan. Chapter 2: Advertising Strategy 2. 1Marketing Mix The project covers Mobilink indigo and Telenor persona an appropriate marketing mix 4Ps i. e. Product, Coast/Price, Place as well as Promotion. (Product There are various services recommend by both companies. A number of general services are the following: †¢ Internet Services, Common Packet means of communication Services †¢ Small communication Services Caller Line recognition †¢ Tone of voice post †¢ Receiver Book investor Price: Price is the majority necessary feature of the marketing mix. It is the only that generate sales income for an exacting company while recounting their expenses. Both companies bring in a fine cost to its client and persuade the others for control on their set of connections and perform make inquiries consumer’s view on the subject of pricing as well as what they would like to reimburse. The Brand differs time to time and Mobilink and Telenor also suggest on incident base service in the vein of Ramadan tie together, Eid tie together etc. to their end user. (Place: Place anxiety with various systems and forms of accessibility of the Effectiveness of celebrity in brand endorsement throughout diverse franchise and place of work. It composes their services provide for the purchaser’s at any time and where ever they need. Mobilink indigo has a broad system of sharing service in Pakistan. But Telenor persona has not to broad system of sharing as compare to Mobilink indigo and both companies services are available throughout their examine centers situated in all country. Franchises obtain well-situated for vendor to formulate the services obtainable to end users. (Promotion: Promotion means the method of communicate with your customers. Promotion formulates strong client’s buying authority and makes consumers buy choice easier. Mobilink indigo be appropriate heavy price associated with endorsement or publicity merchandise ; services. Doing well promotion add to deal so that services and other outlay are extend over a superior output. 2. 2Market segmentation strategies Market segmentation strategies are as followed under †¢ Sales dimensions/ No of customers: Mainly the project base on comparison of Effectiveness of celebrity in brand endorsement it also primarily focal point the services of its clientele. The choice of purchaser and the means depends on the volume of clientele in that area. Mobilink indigo subscriber 31. 6 million (Approx) Telenor persona Telecom24. 7 million (Approx) †¢ Geographic Place This is the nearly everyone other most significant feature, equally the companies offered their item for consumption to the entire region of Pakistan. Generally they focus on big Cities i. e. Gujranwala, Karachi, Lahore as well as Islamabad. Punjab Sindh Balochistan Khyber Pakhtonkhan Azad Jammu ; Kashmir †¢ Physical Limitations Within Pakistan there are no boundary describe to make available the services by both companies. No such condition is stand in services about Effectiveness of celebrity in brand endorsement of this corporation as yet it can go from corner to corner the state edge. †¢ Revenue This feature does not persuade the company marketplace segmentation policy 2. 3Target marketing strategies Mobilink Indigo Every region take account of AJK of Pakistan residents is the goal marketplace, each person in Pakistan desire to make use of mobile that make a wide goal market for the services area. At this time Mobilink indigo has in the order of Fifty million cellular subscribers. Mobilink indigo objective about Effectiveness of celebrity in brand endorsement is to imprison all section of its marketplace , early age kids , youthful, aged, undergraduate , expert, industry peoples, Mobilink indigo has modify selection of all these group of students of consumer. Within Pakistan the majority of the residents are based on middle class so Mobilink indigo is mostly focus aim their services are middle class popular. Following are the target marketing strategies of Mobilink indigo. Decreased value sales There are various diverse packages has been launch to thrust the purchaser to use the invention greatest. These packages also facilitate the client to control from one system to any more. Inducement on usage There are many inducement bring in to use the maximum services for example by calling initial two minutes the after that five minutes are without charge of price. Inducement on control to set of connections To give confidence the client Mobilink indigo as well as Telenor persona obtainable inducement to customers like free of charge minutes and without charge sms for a precise era. Telenor Persona Telenor persona market strategy is to focal point on to increase in number of subscriber through out the world and also focus to develop our leading position in certain regions with a broad range of communication services Following are the target marketing strategies of Telenor persona. To strengthen our location in certain province Telenor Persona try to strength our location in certain province for provide different service to our customer for target market. Focusing on the Customer’s section Focusing on the Customer’s segments means to build packages through extensive and aggressive study skill like because of its large incident as it is one of the establish in services, so they use their effective services and come up with so many packages in that state that is useful for kind of citizens. 2. 4Advertising objectives of the Company The advertising objectives are the following There are less ads being run for Telenor Persona in comparison to the Mobilink indigo. The reason for this is that the main objective is to keep a favorable brand image in the eyes of the corporate clients and there is not too much bombardment of ads. Also the ads are meant to enhance the postpaid users by offering them innovative services like internet, emailing, etc. The objective of Mobilink indigo and Telenor persona to make the services separate from others and to convince on the customers Mobilink indigo increase market share and to push brand favorite and to be a focus for maximum customers as well as to attain the association objective through services 2. 5Message strategy: For each brand and for a number of adverts for these brands there are different message strategies are used. Telenor-Persona The equivalent case is with Telenor, they modify their message executive method regularly to keep away from their customers other public get uninterested. For example Telenor used â€Å"technological proficiency† and â€Å"picture† which helps citizens smile on their visage. 2. 7 Reach, frequency and impact Mobilink indigo and Telenor persona to his most excellent to present their services to their customer and contributor it has a sensible budget for encouragement.

Monday, January 6, 2020

A Brief Note On The American Public Health Association

It costs taxpayers over $2 billion dollars a year in medical charges to care for victims of firearms-related injuries. The American Public Health Association (APHA) released a study at their annual meeting stating that â€Å"the high figures underline the need to treat gun violence in the U.S. as a public health issue as well as a law enforcement challenge.† There are massive amounts of people that get hurt each year by guns, which puts a huge burden on our healthcare system. According to the American Public Health Association, â€Å"one out of every three patients hospitalized for gun injuries was uninsured. Many of these uninsured victims of gun violence will see their medical costs reduced due to President Obama’s health care reform law, which offers more low-income Americans access to Medicaid. Between 2000 and 2010, 275,939 individuals were victims of gunfire in the U.S., and received 1.7 million days of hospital charges which only included costs after the pa tient was admitted, which does not include emergency room costs.† The cost for a person to be hospitalized for medical treatment due to a firearms-related injury is approximately $75,884, which is about $14,000 more than that of the average hospital stay due to the severity of the injuries often involved, and approximately 31,000 die, addition to the enormous number of injuries from guns. In addition, the cost of building expensive hospital trauma units needed for this type of treatment. Some of the research findingsShow MoreRelatedPublic Health And Academic Writing980 Words   |  4 Pagesoutside of those I am most familiar with is public health. 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